Director of Research Intelligence
Parallax Advanced Research – Advancing the Science of Intelligent Teaming™Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are technologies that allow the brain to communicate directly with a computer or other external device. BCIs work by measuring and interpreting the electrical signals produced by the brain, which can then be used to control a variety of devices or perform other tasks.
There are a number of different technologies used in BCIs, each of which has its own strengths and limitations. Some of the primary interface technologies include:Electroencephalography (EEG): EEG measures the electrical activity of the brain using electrodes placed on the scalp. It is a non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique, but it has limited spatial resolution and can be affected by muscle and other external signals.
- Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): fNIRS uses infrared light to measure changes in blood oxygenation and flow in the brain, which can be used to infer neural activity. It is non-invasive and can provide high spatial resolution, but it is sensitive to changes in the position of the head and can be affected by light absorption and scattering in the tissue.
- Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): fMRI uses magnetic fields and radio waves to measure changes in blood flow and oxygenation in the brain, which can be used to infer neural activity. It provides high spatial and temporal resolution, but it is expensive and requires the subject to remain still in a confined space.
- Neurofeedback: Neurofeedback involves using BCI technology to provide feedback to the user about their own brain activity, which can be used to train them to alter their brain activity in certain ways. It can be used to treat a range of conditions.
In addition to the brain-computer interface technologies mentioned above, there are other stimulative methodologies that can be used to prime the brain for neuroplasticity, or the ability to change and adapt in response to experience. These include:
- Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): tDCS involves the application of a low-level electrical current to the scalp, which can modulate brain activity and plasticity. It is a non-invasive and relatively inexpensive technique, but its effects are still not fully understood and it can have potential side effects.
- Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): TMS uses magnetic fields to stimulate specific areas of the brain, and can be used to study brain function and to treat a range of conditions. It is a non-invasive technique, but it can be expensive and may not be suitable for all individuals.
- Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS): VNS involves the use of electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve, which can modulate brain activity and plasticity. It is typically used to treat epilepsy and depression, but it can also be used for other indications. VNS can have potential side effects and is not suitable for all individuals.
- Trigeminal nerve stimulation (TNS): TNS involves the use of electrical stimulation to the trigeminal nerve, which can modulate brain activity.
China has been pursuing the development of brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies in recent years, as part of its broader efforts to advance its technology and military capabilities. BCIs are technologies that allow the brain to communicate directly with a computer or other external device, and have a range of potential applications in fields such as medicine, neuroscience, and military operations.
China has made significant progress in the development of BCI technologies, including the development of advanced brain-imaging techniques and the creation of BCI-focused companies and research institutes. China has also attracted top talent in the field of BCI, and has been working to build partnerships with other countries and institutions in this area. China's pursuit of BCI technologies has raised concerns in the United States and other countries, particularly in relation to national security and strategic competition. Some have expressed concern about the potential for China to use BCI for military or strategic advantage, or to gain access to sensitive information and technologies.
Overall, China's pursuit of BCI technologies is part of its broader efforts to advance its technology and military capabilities, and is likely to continue. These developments will have significant implications for global strategic competition and the development of BCI technologies.
Recently China's Academy of Military Medical Sciences (AMMS), plus 11 of its research institutes landed on the US Commerce Entity List for its role, "based on the body of information that AMMS and its eleven research institutes use biotechnology processes to support Chinese military end uses and end users, to include purported brain-control weaponry." "This activity is contrary to US national security and foreign policy interests," said the department's final rule.
The Academy of Military Medical Sciences (AMMS) is a research institute and training center of the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China. It is located in Beijing, and is responsible for conducting research on medical and health issues related to the PLA, as well as providing training and education for military medical personnel.
The AMMS was established in 1951, and has played a key role in the development of military medical capabilities in China. It has a number of research institutes and training centers, and works closely with other military and civilian institutions on medical research and development. The AMMS has made significant contributions to the development of military medical technology and practice in China. It has conducted research on a range of issues, including combat medicine, infectious diseases, military hygiene, and psychological health. It has also developed a number of medical technologies and treatments, including vaccines, medical devices, and diagnostic tools.
AMMS is an important institution in the development of military medical capabilities in China, and plays a key role in supporting the health and wellbeing of the PLA. It is likely to continue to be a major contributor to military medical research and development in China in the future.